Khalilullah Tawhidyar

 

As far as my understanding concerns, I think, I went through many processes; initially to be selected here by HEDP in MoHE. The grounding for the advanced OBE, SCL and Blended Learning workshop in UTM, perhaps tied with my primarily participation on OBE and SCL workshop which conducted in our university (Parwan University). I believe that was the icon of my faith which shaped here. Next, writing the Teaching Portfolio was the other vital step for selection in HEDP which transparently and competently done by Mr. Habibi. Then, we are interviewed by the HEDP Senior Training Manager for further qualification and checking our English proficiency and Teaching Groundings. Finally, we could take as qualified training candidates to go to Johor Bahru, Malaysia which has done just in October, 2017 and had the privilege of attending the workshop in UTM.

As a matter of fact, I knew the major concepts of OBE and SCL before attending the Advanced OBE and SCL workshop in UTM, because I primarily participated in OBE and SCL workshop which taken place in our university. (Parwan University) I discerned some of the concepts and notions at surface level such as: OBE and its common interpretation, SCL activities, Constructive Alignment, Zone of Proximal Development, Learning styles and etc. But it must be confessed that all these and the respected core issues were not deeply felt and realized by my heart and implemented effectively, whereas now I can dare to advocate each concept and apply or implement in the light of conscious understanding and realization.

Surely, I have been used similar activities, methods and procedures since 2011, just I assigned as a new lecturer in English Department, Languages and Literature Faculty, Parwan University. The TLA (Teaching Learning Activities) which I have been used can be summed up as follow: graded discussion, role play, paraphrasing, writing reflections, group work, pair works, individual and group presentation, interview, modeling and some other informal cooperative activities and it must be noted that my teaching activities differ with consideration to the nature of subjects.

I have understood now, what OBE is and its genuine essence and nature and how it can be implemented effectively with consideration to environmental factors, needs, levels and interests of our students. Moreover, I can dare to claim that now I can design any course related to my field with full involvement of OBE and SCL‘s concepts and notions. Next, I got plenty information and experiences of respected professors in terms of constructive alignment and I have to highlight that Inshallah, I can draw a parallel among learning outcomes, instruction and assessment. The other important areas which really grabbed my attention were HPL (how people learn) and ILS (index of learning style) which are quite vital in developing curriculum, delivering syllabus and deigning down activities.

I really had problem with PEO (Program Educational Objectives), PO (Program Outcomes), and Course Outcomes mapping and their alignment with instruction (teaching and learning activities) and assessment. It must be also said that I personally faced with some confusion in some of the PPTs and slides that covered by some of the professors at UTM but hopefully, I have overcome them thorough asking for further clarification regarding the ambiguous concepts from the concerned professors at tea breaks and in another spare times. Lastly, it must be noted that the contribution of Mr. Hekmatullah Habibi and Shahid Mahmood Wager Sahib that I went to their rooms and they clarified and elaborated the concepts and instructed how PEO, PO and CO can be mapped and aligned with instruction and assessment cannot be ignored. Finally, let it be said that through colleagues’ contribution and professors’ further elaboration to many unknown or confused concepts, certainly helped me to be cleared enough.

In relation to the resources, I could dare to say that I used my personal laptop, the four books of OBE and SCL, notebook, slide shares from Google in relation to OBE and SCL, and also utilized from our colleagues’ and Malaysian Champions’ experiences, ideas, understandings and PPTs and slide shares. I shall claim that constructivism helped me a lot to go to the depth of some of the major concepts and came up with unified understanding and conclusion of concepts. Next, it can also be said that I collected many meaningful information in the regard from internet and I tried a lot to merge with colleagues and professors explanations and also share my own understanding and beliefs as well.

I think OBE and SCL is the key to the lucks of many countries’ education system who aspire a shift from traditional approaches to contemporary approaches. I fall in love with OBE, SCL and Blended Learning because what I was looking for or what I missed in my Teaching Philosophy was the shift, OBE and SCL offered many opportunities for learners to internalize, construct and relate the lesson to the real life. OBE gave me the feeling that the class shall be peaceful and phobia-free environment for learners. In addition, I would like to say that firstly, if I could realize the genuine nature of OBE and SCL and its major concepts and through actual execution, I will feel OBE and SCL more interesting than now and yet. I am sure that through effective implementation and long-term support of OBE and SCL I will ascertain my feeling and attitude regarding OBE and SCL and Blended Learning as well.

Constructive Alignment sounds really good and meaningful to me because the very pathway and roadmap for our progress and meeting the demand of job market will be insured through constructive alignment. If I am not exaggerating, it must be said CQI grantees the future of our good learners.

I really like HPL, in which I came up with this conclusion that if my students are failing or not enough active in the class, this is not only their fault but I am also part of the fault or my way of teaching has also its own scarcity (leakage) so I shall realize and find how the learners learn. Secondly, I am impressed by ILS which I just started working with my students that what kind of learners are they. And what should be done in advance in order to balance the learning level and draw parallel among all four common types of learning styles.

I truly enjoyed working with colleagues and shared my concerns and confusions with the respected professors in terms of OBE and SCL. Next, I really enjoyed discovering the way; they were teaching and coming up with realization of my own potentials. Then, it can be also addressed that I certainly enjoyed being part of the 22 Afghan Champions and found my own place among them. Eventually, it can similarly be claimed that I can feel OBE and SCL principles through actual implementation in my classes.

I found mapping PEO, PO, and CO very frustrating and quite confusing because it did not run cooperatively or in team working, we in fact, were ignored in some important aspects and surely one of them was mapping PEO, PO, and CO which very typically remained un- answered. Secondly, professors’ surface undergone of important notions of OBE and SCL and their inconsideration of our questions really frustrated me. Lastly, their attitude towards Afghans and Afghan champions sometimes really made me disappointed. The typical view of some of our Afghan champions regarding core principles of OBE and SCL in the workshop and ignoring the value of training also added to my frustration. (Negative attitude regarding effective implementation of OBE, SCL and Blended Learning)

Definitely, the advanced OBE and SCL workshop have met my standards which I desired in professional and academic life. As far as the fact concerns, the workshop changed my view to look to teaching, learning and assessment from a more constructive and aligned dimension. Following the training, I committed to myself and to my students that let’s do the funeral ceremony of lecture-method and other conventional techniques together. We are in twenty first century and conventional methods and approaches are no longer dealt with our contemporary needs. Further, it shall be confessed that the workshop gave me the spirit of collaboration and cooperation with students and colleagues to take steps forward positive changes and betterment in the world of learning and teaching. Part of the standards which I was expecting was finding self from the evaluation of Malaysian champions. In fact, the workshop was a significant motive for me to go shoulder by shoulder with contemporary educational technology and methodology in which we are compelled to be updated and tentative in terms of designing syllabi and delivery of the activity.

The main goals which shaped the very motivation of mine for participating the OBE and SCL Workshop were: to become good champion (in order to develop curriculum in the light of OBE and SCL), to utilize from oversea professors’ and champions’ experiences, understandings and impressions in relation to the contemporary approaches and educational systems, to change the current outdated teaching and learning approaches which sovereign in Higher Education of Afghanistan, to be a good lecturer and etc. Putting all these goals together indeed, led my destiny for participation of advanced OBE and SCL workshop in Malaysia. I can dare to say that my goals were modified following my participation of the workshop. Some of my goals were reinterpreted by the expectations of the workshop such as development of curriculum, crucially demands the full and appropriate understanding of OBE and SCL and the further actions should be taken in consideration of environmental factors and teaching learning materials.

The workshop gave me the sense of responsibility regarding accomplishment of a tough but vital mission in my career which means as a lecturer I have to tirelessly work to change, to enhance, update, and tentatively move forward in the realm of higher education and teaching learning process. I as a lecturer have a lot ahead to do in order to implement OBE and SCL effectively in my country and particularly in my university. As a lecturer, I shall regularly conduct researches in terms of updating and redefining the process of learning. Furthermore, I reached to the conclusion, that shifting cannot be happened over a night but it takes duration, time to institutionalize the system in Afghanistan. As a learner, I found that it is a long life process to be learnt and follow such precious alternatives for shifting and moving to contemporary world of teaching and learning. As a good learner I fully evaluated myself and realized that I have to be smart because I shall work smartly to learn more in the respect and apply in the actual world (classroom).

I have learnt that I shall try my best and work smartly to enhance my teaching skills and follow workshops and trainings in the regard. Second, I came up with the notion that I have to make network and interact with other qualified figures to enjoy from their constructive suggestions and remarks regarding my improvement. Next, I understood and assessed my strengths and weaknesses in the realm of teaching, learning and assessment and what shall be done to have fruitful outcomes of our efforts. Last, I learnt that through collaboration and cooperation we can improve and build capacity in terms of national level.

I hope, I may not exaggerate and overrate my perception of OBE and SCL and to be honest, I can dare to claim that OBE and SCL changed my terminology of teaching, learning and assessment. The Advanced Workshop helped me to redefine many core concepts of teaching and assessment from a contemporary attitude. Now and yet, many concepts of OBE and SCL cleared to me as I consciously undergone through internalizing the concepts and contextualized them. For instance, my understanding and realization of Constructive Alignment, CQI, PEO, PO, CO and ZPD changed constructively. (PEO, PO, CO, CQI and mapping all of them)

One thing which I really enthusiastic to improve is constructive alignment because If I cannot accomplish the desired goals and outcomes than I perhaps rethink over my instruction and assessment to discover the very barriers alongside outcomes attainment. Let it be also said, that the second and for most important part of my attention will be CQI.

If possible, there should be more chances for sharing participants’ experiences and understandings and the lead should be taken by the thoughtful participant of champions to come up with their united understanding of concepts and notions. Second, suggestions, recommendations, and remarks of participants shall be considered vital for the workshop betterment. Next, if possible every participant shall be asked to writer reflection on everyday participation and engagement. Team work has to be supported and conducted by Malaysian Professors Champions in order to make sure whether they learnt or still slipped away.

To be honest, I have little confusion in terms of mapping PEO, PO, CO, CQI and drawing parallel among learning outcomes, instruction and assessment. I would like to follow further trainings in the mentioned areas in order to consciously realize and apply them.

I found advance OBE and SCL workshop one of the meaningful and constructive events of my life because it genuinely helped me to view teaching and learning from a different and very positive perspective. In terms of effective implementation of OBE and SCL, I would like to say that I have been started implementation of OBE and SCL just by my arrival and joining my classes. In addition let it be noted that I putted dot (full stop) to lecture method and the rest teacher-centered methods and techniques which I have been used. Therefore, I alternatively used OBE and SCL in my own classed and I found the mentioned approach interactive and students welcomed it.

Inshallah, I will support and nurture OBE and SCL through conducting research in the regard and holding workshops at faculty and university level. Moreover, it is also mentionable that through actual performance in my classes in the light of OBE and SCL, I can also change the stereotyped mindset about OBE and SCL implementation.

As I clearly advocated OBE and SCL as the contemporary approach to substitute the conventional approach and certainly will have fruitful and meaningful impact on the process of learning and teaching. Furthermore, I will also discuss and convince them based on my actual results and improvements which are indebted of implementation of OBE and SCL in the course of classroom performance.

I think, OBE and SCL can be institutionalized if the Ministry of Higher Education truly supports the notion of OBE and SCL through financial and academic support in terms of conducting researches by the champions and holding conferences and trainings about OBE and SCL. In addition, I can also dare to expect that Ministry of Higher Education can coordinate and invest on champions in national level in order to substitute OBE, SCL and BL (blended learning) instead of traditional approaches. Last but not least, it can also be institutionalized through paving the ground for champions for further and advance workshops in Malaysia and oversea to generalize the ap


               Reflection Paper by Mohammad Najim Wahedy

             Kabul Polytechnic University

 

Backward Looking:

The foremost goal for me as a professor is to be always state of the art, along with new technology and lifelong learning through teaching and learning to and from involvement with students. When I joined Kabul Polytechnic University as a lecturer in 2013, I have been teaching different subjects. In addition serving as lecturer, I have been involving in E-Learning committee, faculty academic council member and member of university development’s committee.

 

My teaching style was the same with our senior professors, meaning professor center learning and all the activities were done by professor such us: text book selection, lecture preparation, delivery and exam, regularly close to content base learning style.

 

As I am young professor and familiar with blended teaching, I have been using this method in to my classes for teaching purpose. I always seek new teaching method for better engagement of student inside the class, fortunately I found the opportunity to attend the of OBE-SCL workshop in home university conducted by champions and I understood the goal of this workshop and somehow I implemented in my classes. Especially I have got the concept of SCL better than OBE, because the OBE was not clear for me and no one can elaborate as I want. This was my problem because both of them are correlated. Unfortunately in that time I did not have any option and resources without a few slide in ppt format that I could solve my problem.

Luckily, I was informed by faculty that an Advance OBE-SCL workshop is going to launch in Malaysia and everyone who have basic idea about OBE-SCL can apply for this workshop. As I was eager for this kind of workshop, which can develop my profession, I prepare the requirements of application like teaching portfolio and other document and applied for that. By good luck, after short listing and interview in a merit and transparence competition based I have selected as a participant to attend the workshop in Malaysia.

 

Inward looking:

I felt lucky when I was selected as a member of OBE-SCL workshop in UTM Malaysia, where OBE-SCL is used as a new method for teaching of student across Asia since 2005. I really enjoyed seeing professors from across Afghanistan’s universities with different idea and concepts, joint traveling, sharing idea, observing modern method of teaching in UTM classes which student are more active then professors in the class, determination of course and program outcome with the action verb that must be SMART was very attractive for me, seeing abroad country and its people, I absolutely liked and thank you for this scholarship providers. But one thing frustrating me is lack of this capacity building program in our homeland, hope we as a champion trainer fully acquire this capacity in near future and train the next junior professors in

 

In my point of view this workshop was good; I could cover most of my expectations and goals during 15 days stay at UTM including the overall concepts, bases and general definitions of OBE-SCL, outcome preparation for courses and program, constructive alignment, assessment tools and methods, cooperative learning, and so forth. We covered all four chapters designed for OBE-SCL with class activities, presentations, quizzes, exams and interview. So still we need improvement, it was a start, we need to move forward by our self-attend to other workshops as well to update and mastering our proficiency in order to fully implement this method to enhance the education quality and competency of Afghan students to work independently and compete in market.

This workshop revealed us as lecturer to work with student to achieve the outcomes through SCL, constructive alignment and assessment tools, in this method instructor is working as a facilitator and provide the ground to engage the student, all the learning process are performing by students and they have to work to gather through and forming the groups to gain the expected outcomes. As a student you must work a lot and change your mood from passive into active if you don’t you are fail and you will waste your time.

To be frank, I did not have enough information and idea regarding OBE-SCL method in deep, but fortunately after participation in OBE-SCL workshop, I have understood general concept and aspects of this method and now I can apply it to my home university if I can overcome on challenges which I will face in implementation phase. Every change has its own obstacles so we need to be patient and try our best to gradually accept it by others that it takes time.

I think this method is most suitable for our country because most of our students after graduation don’t have the specific ability to work independently in his/her field and need to work as internship, the reason is lack of defined and specified outcomes in program and course level. So my suggestion is: we should start top down approach meaning first of all we should accept and insert this method officially in Afghanistan high education system, after that we can prepare the program education outcomes by MoHE and industries, program outcomes by universities and market needs and course outcomes correspondingly, then update our curriculum and syllabuses in constructive manner to achieve the outcomes through SCL, cooperative learning environment and assessment. In this approach we will able in the future to enhance the education quality in Afghanistan and empower our students in field of study in national and international level, which helps us in global ranking and accreditation of our universities.

As I attend in this workshop I consider some of section need to be improved which will effect on workshop outcomes and participant’s achievement at the end, like detail in every module, translated version of OBE-SCL chapters in national languages some of our seniors professors are not good in English command, pilot program outcomes and course outcomes for better understanding the concept of OBE, refreshment for participants, .attract support of university top management for implementation of OBE-SCL method, and most important factor is convince of the senior professor, dean of faculty that accept this method as an advance teaching system and let us for implementation. By the way I will support this method and will use it in my courses as much as I can, I will make myself as example who use OBE-SCL and will show them that this is easy method for enhancing the education level, I will conduct the workshop for our university professors and motivate them to use this method in their classes and I will personally work and help with them individually to understand and use OBE-SCL, but foremost we need to have the program outcome and updated curriculum that we align our course outcome and assessment to them in order to achieve the expected program education outcomes.

I believe the OBE-SCL will succeed in Afghanistan as it goes like this pace (support of HEDP and MoHE) and will be the successor of the traditional method of teaching, hopefully we will implement this method in near future in all over Afghanistan by spreading our knowledge to others professors and university’s leaders by conducting workshops until they become familiar and we can easily institutionalize it and make it as a base for high education system, I hope even we can use this method in schools as well, which the student become familiar when they come to university.


Reflection Paper by Mohammad Amin Joya

Bamyan University

 

I was informed that the lecturers who hold, at least, a Master’s degree and owning a desirable competence in English language could be eligible for a nomination stage, though, those who had already attended the related workshops either in their own universities or in the MoHE were prioritized. The nominees also had to develop a teaching portfolio containing their planning of teaching, beliefs and philosophy towards teaching and learning, and that how a teacher should assess the overall process of teaching while deeply bearing in mind the previously formed outcomes by them. As part of the process the shortlisted candidates had to pass a very competitive step through skype interview answering in details to several OBE-SCL questions and that how the candidates would apply and share their knowledge to their universities if they accomplish the proposed workshop.

Theoretically, the OBE, as I went through the concepts later on, was new but remarkable to me. Contrary to what the OBE suggests, before attending the workshop, I assumed that the educational institutions themselves should develop their curricula and educational programs without any negotiations or without any continuous relation with industry and other stakeholders. In other words, in the Afghan educational context, it was very commonly perceived that the “Outcome” is something to be generated and authenticated by the experts. In terms of OBE, however, I knew more of SCL comparing to my understanding of the OBE. My knowledge on the SCL mostly comes from the educational environment where I was doing my Master’s degree.

Along with my teaching experiences, I have applied several active methods of teaching that potentially address the concepts of Student-Centered Learning, in some extent. The methods, I.e., making students to work in groups or peers; peer reviews in my writing courses; asking students for presentations, etc., which I used to apply in my classes represented the SCL approaches. Before taking the workshop, however, I was very excessively trapped into some very common and frequently used techniques of SCL. Partly, stereotyping just a few techniques was influenced by the actual conditions of the classes where I couldn’t apply every SCL desired practice. For example, in a small space classroom with large number of students, it seems to be very hard to divide the students into ideal groups of 3-5 as the SCL suggests.

I found the OBE-SCL workshop helpful and impressive. The methods, tools, criteria, and techniques of assessment; those which make points of the Formative Assessment in particular, impressed me more. Most importantly, it was very inspiring as I learned that how the instructor and academic authorities can use the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Cognitive Domain) to structure curriculum, learning objectives, outcomes, assessments and activities. Theoretically, I owned adequate knowledge on Bloom’s Taxonomy. In practice, however, I had never used the concept in educational sitting. Before attending the workshop, it was perceived that an instructor might only measure the level of achievement of the students based upon the assigned course materials just through summative techniques and methods.

Meanwhile, before participating to the workshop, I assumed that the workshop inputs would thoroughly fit the needs for a particular educational context and circumstances targeting the Afghan higher education system. Personally, it seems very likely to be able to apply the SCL approaches and techniques, in particular, of those which suit a large class environment well. Yet, the OBE is still something demanding lots of efforts and prerequisites as our current education system lacking them. Further justifying the claim, as the very soon upcoming national convention on reviewing and benchmarking of curriculum implies the MoHE is overemphasizing on expert oriented reviews rather than what the OBE suggests that the term “Outcome” is not something directly coming from the thoughts of experts and professionals. In other words, according to the OBE, it is not an expert who recognizes what the students should learn, rather we need to distinguish our priorities based upon the reactions and suggestions we may receive by industry and other stakeholders.

The OBE-SCL workshop, in fact, was one of the most convenient opportunity and a great experience throughout my educational career. I feel, I need to work more on how to create and develop “outcomes”, including learning outcomes, program educational outcomes, program outcomes, and course learning outcomes.  Based on my experiences throughout the workshop in Malaysia, I would like to suggest the MoHE and the HEDP to provide the similar fellowship opportunity that should more focus on describing and identifying the mechanism and strategies of making a meaningful linkage amongst the higher educational institutions, community, industries and other stakeholders. Now, our system of education is designed and developed just based on a self-need assessment of the MoHE authorities while extremely lacking the reflections and feedbacks made by others.

I am expecting that within the winter as my colleagues have enough free time I would be able to manage the OBE-SCL workshop at Bamyan University. However, implementing the workshops is not the ultimate step in applying it in our universities. The better institutionalization of the OBE-SCL depends on bringing changes and fundamentally restructuring in education system. Now, we are facing an imbalanced process of development in higher education where is no uniformity in the development process of infrastructures, services and the on-going increase in enrollments. The irregularity of the educational development process will potentially create irretrievable gaps in obtaining the targets drawn by the OBE-SCL.

As concluding points, the OBE-SCL suggests that teaching is not to transfer the contents to the students, rather teaching is a meaningful and constructive interdependency of instructions and learning aligned with intended outcomes made; not only based upon what a teacher desires but what the students need and have to acquire as to be responsive in their daily lives. Hence, I as a teacher, must focus on the learning needs for the coming up courses; referring to what I have already learned from the OBE-SCL sessions as well as through identifying authentic requirements consistent to the actual context of my university.

The fundamental point and the ultimate aspect of the OBE-SCL oriented teaching is not what is taught but what is learned. The lecturers must seriously consider this point that throughout conducting a course they must set up some instruments and criteria for a continuously assessment of the learners to be used as improvement medium to them. Designing or providing relevant classroom materials, assignments, tests, projects and etc. have to be used for the measurement of success, and improvement of learning effectiveness.

Having all these, I have still fear of failure in accomplishing some aspects of my career as a teacher. It is important for a teacher that she/he should have an assumption of potential failures beside the assigned goals they may accomplish. I am a bit afraid to fail in coverage of materials and contents while applying student-centered approaches, in particular when confronting large classes with insufficient required facilities. However, I belief that it more crucial to enhance students’ skills and bring changes in their attitudes through various cooperative learning activities where interactive teaching approach and cooperative environment are demanded.


Refliction Paper by Rafiqullah Baryalai 

ayed Jamaluddin Afghani University 

First of all I would like to thank Director of HEDP that provided such nice ,valuable and important program of Advance OBE-SCL and all the staff of HEDP especially Mr. Mohammad Ehsan Habibi who was very transparent kind collaborative and National personality .after this I am coming to the point , I would like to say that the selection process for the advanced OBE-SCL workshop was very transparent and excellent, it was based down on eligibility and ability those who were eligible or deserve selected and those who were not eligible do not selected ,there was no any kind of discrimination regarding selection process .

I by myself is very convince and happy from the whole selection process it was really transparent .from the beginning I filled of all the require forms about my profile information and education background including certificates ,then I have provided Teaching Portfolio through which I became shortlist, after shortlist I went to final Competitive interview ,eventually I have successfully became eligible to the advanced OBE-SCL workshop ,before attending Advance OBE-SCL workshop I had Basic and some knowledge about OBE-SCL Because during my Bachelor and Master studies teaching and learning system was based down OBE-SCL, but after advanced OBE-SCL workshop I upgrade and improved a lot . Regarding Advance OBE-SCL workshop I really enjoyed and learnt more. (more…)


Mohammad Naeim Maleki

Heart University

 

First of all, I would like to thank all the people involved in having the workshop on OBE-SCL. I am satisfied with the transparent process in which the candidates went through. After submitting our CV, portfolio, and other necessary documents, some of us were shortlisted and had the interview. The list was further shortened and the best candidates were selected. That is to say, disregarding the candidates’ gender, major and years of teaching experiences, the potential candidates were selected. At the end, the professors who had the abilities to perform well in the workshop were sent to UTM in Malaysia. We were trained about OBE-SCL and assessment by some professors from UTM.

Since my major is TESOL and I had studied about SCL during my stay in the USA as a Fulbright scholar, I was familiar with student-centered learning methodologies. For example, I had used “jigsaw activities” in my classes where students had many kinds of interaction patterns in the class, providing students with an opportunity to present individually and in groups about a learned topic.

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Champions Reflection Paper-Batch 1


FIROZ UZBEK KARIMI

VICE CHANCELLOR OF STUDENT AFFAIRS

When Faryab university operation coordinator sent a letter from HEDP that was about instructors who have MA and they should complete portfolio and CV for participating OBE – SCL training workshop in UTM Malaysia. Then I decided to write my teaching portfolio, CV and prepared other required documents and certificates and diplomas for this OBE – SCL training program. I have completed my teaching portfolio about 15 days and after completing all essential documents and teaching portfolio I sent on March 6 -2017 at HEDP office. Finally, after a few months I and two other collogues shortlisted by Mohammad Ehsan Habibi Senior Teaching and Learning Manager at Higher Education Development Program of Ministry of Higher Education, and then we selected for interview with Mohammad Ehsan Habibi Senior Teaching and Learning Manager after passing interview I selected by HEDP office for the first batch to go in UTM Malaysia.

In the past I never participated for OBE – SCL because of that I didn’t know according OBE – SCL but I have participated for methodology course in Singapore and it was a little bit similar with SCL, so for methodology curse I have learnt group working, pair work and making role play. As I mentioned in above sentences, I didn’t know about OBE – SCL. When I came back from Singapore I tried to implement new teaching methods what I have learnt to make active class at English department of Faryab University.

The big problems that we have faced before attending the workshop was not being familiar by OBE and SCL because in Afghanistan most of teachers did not implement and it was new for most of us. In spite of these mentioned challenges I tried to overcome and make ready for the advanced OBE – SCL training workshop through team work discussion asking question from trainers of UTM.

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Organic matter and nutrient losses via run-off (March/December, 2016) in Urban Agriculture of Kabul, Afghanistan

 

Zikrullah Safia, Ghulam Mohammad Bahramc, Mohammad Alem Alem

 Kabul, bowl like capital city of Afghanistan is located at elevation of 18, 00 m a s l. with the current population of 4.2 million. The constructed areas have been encircled by urban fields. Climate is highly continental; rainfall always contributes water as a supplemental irrigation to agricultural crops. Sedimentations in streams, water courses, and in Kabul River are often observed. Urban fields have been regularly used for fresh vegetables and cereals in the rotation for food and feed production. Agriculture productions rely on fertilizers, but use of night soil and city bio-wastes are in abundance. Torrential rainfall is often observed as a main source of soil erosion. The run-off degrades environment by contamination of surface water, underground water, Kabul River and other low laying water bodies. A study on “Organic matter and nutrient (NPKC) losses via run-off in the Urban Agriculture (UA) of Kabul”, was conducted (March-December, 2016) to quantify soil and nutrient losses via run-off in urban areas of Kabul. Four endemic crops of Kabul Province were planted in the rotation. The results showed neglect erosion according to the universal soil loss

equation. The total Monthly average soil losses in two farms (n= 30) were 2.52 kg ha-1. Maize and wheat plots had higher soil losses (19.30 and 18.52%), respectively. Barley and millet had lesser

soil losses (15.37, and 12. 49%), respectively. Control plots of both farms showed 17.65% soil

losses. The average total N, P, K losses were neglected due to low rainfall and short period of study, statistically the variation of soil losses under different cropping system was not significant (p >0.05).

Lastly, based on our findings, few recommendations have been suggested to scientists, farmers and policy makers.

Keywords: Run-off, Soil erosion, Kabul urban area, Afghanistan.

 

INTRODUCTION

Kabul is one of the largest city and the national capital of Afghanistan, located in a narrow valley along the Kabul River, overlooked by the Asmai and Sherdawaza mountain ranges, in the east-central part of the country. Kabul is an old city with a history of more than 3000 years. The city was for centuries a way-station and a major trading center at the trade routes between South and Central Asia (see figure 1). Kabul, one of the highest capitals in Asia, with its current population of 4.2 million (CSO. 2014/2015) is located at 18.00 m a s l. Kabul’s soil has developed under arid and semiarid climatic condition. Unplanned use of city bio-wastes and sewage water for irrigation remained always main sources of

nutrients imbalance in the urban soil (Safi et al., 2010). The elemental overloaded sewage waters increases the materials toxicities in the soil during irrigation which degrades the environment. Despite of economic losses, leaching of nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and ammonium contaminate surface and underground water. It is reported that Kabul basin is indicating deposits including sand, silt and clay which have been imported from the surrounded mountains originated by carbonates, marls, sand stones and from melted magma karsts. Ground water in some places of Kabul city is affected by sedimentation which contained toxic materials such as NO2, NO3, Bo2 and other soluble contaminants (Initial Environmental Examination., 2011; Mohummad et al., 2014). The 10.8% contaminated wells of Kabul with nitrate can be good example (Houben. 2005). Leaching of nitrate, phosphate and ammonium in the vegetable production areas were reported high too (Safi et al., 2011). Contamination of Kabul River in the low laying area of Peshawar with some toxic elements was also reported. (IUCN, Pollution and the Kabul River, 1994). This can be solved by study of the current ongoing farming system and applying different practices such as soil and crop management, soil erosion control will increases soil productivity. Chaudary and Shafiq reported that crop management is one of the best ways of soil erosion control (Chaudhry and Shafiq, 1986). The practice of good cultivation combination, optimum sowing method, use of mulching; disclose crop cultivation and precise use of chemical and organic fertilizers may enhance soil protection.(Safi, et. al. 2016; Khan, et. al. 2007).

To read more: http://www.hedp.af/blog/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/springjournals.netijarrarticlesindex11zikrullahetal.pdf


Transformation of Kabul based Universities from using Classic Content Management System to Web Content Management System

Transformation of Kabul based Universities from using Classic Content Management System to Web Content Management System

Key issues and challenges

Researcher: Siddiqullah Barikzai

Year: 2016

Abstract

The aim of this research is to find problems and challenges resulted from using Classic Content Management System (CCMS) and replacing it with Web Content Management System (WCMS) in Kabul based universities. The study found answers to the following questions: Do stated universities have necessary facilities such as electricity, ICTs, and the Internet? Are faculty administrators, instructors, and student ready to use WCMS? What problems and challenges have resulted as consequence of using CCMS? Finally, which of these two systems are cost-effective, quick, efficient, and more reliable?

The research results indicate that all administrators, instructors and students agree that CCMS is incapable to fulfill their needs; therefore, it has to be replaced with WCMS. However, it is important that all necessary equipment (such as stable electricity, ICTs, fast internet) which WCMS needs has to be provided before converting CCMS to WCMS. In fact, this modern system is faster, efficient, economical, and more reliable than CCMS.

Keywords: CCMS, WCMS, ICTs, Open Source, Kabul based universities.

Introduction

Nowadays WCMS has become an essential part of an institution and it makes a strong impact on the image of it (Shaik, 2005).

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are just as essential for modern society as electricity and water networks. Modern everyday life would be absolutely unthinkable without ICTs. It reduces costs, improve processes, boost innovation, and increase productivity. It also makes the public sector leaner, faster and more citizen-friendly.Most universities in the world use WCMS for leading their administrative, teaching, learning, and service delivery purposes. A WCMS is a computer application that allows publishing, editing and modifying content, organizing, deleting as well as maintenance from a central interface. It provides procedures to manage workflow in a collaborative environment (Arnold, 2003).

To read more: http://www.hedp.af/blog/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Transformation-of-Kabul-based-Universities-from-using-Classic-Content-Management-System-to-Web-Content-Management-System.pdf


Bacterial community and fermentation patterns associated with ensilage process of wilted

Bacterial community and fermentation patterns associated with ensilage process of wilted

Wali Ajmal

Animal Science department, Agriculture Faculty, Sheikh Zayed University, Afghanistan

Abstract

Aims: To assess the variation in bacterial communities and determine the effects of wilting,

storage period and molasses inoculant on the bacterial community and fermentation pattern of

oats silage.

Methods and Results: Fermentation pattern, colony counts and denaturing gradient gel

electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles were determined. The lactic acid content was higher than acetic

acid in all silages; however the lactic acid to acetic acid ratio decreased with storage time. This

alteration from lactic to acetic acid was not prevented even with a combination of wilting and

molasses inoculant. The DGGE analyses suggest that facultatively heterofermentative lactic acid

bacteria (Lactobacillus Lactis, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus pentosus) were involved in

the shift to acetic acid fermentation.

Conclusions: Lactic acid can dominate the fermentation in oat silage with sufficient wilting and

molasses inoculant prior to ensiling. Storage continuation may lead to high levels of acetic acid

without exclusive changes in the bacterial community.

Significance and Impact of the Study: The bacterial community looks stable compared to

fermentation products over the course of long storage periods in oat silage. Acetic acid

fermentation in oat silage can be a result of the changes in bacterial metabolism rather than

community structure.

Keywords: agriculture, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, microbiota, silage, Oat.

Introduction:

Silage is formed by bacterial activity and other chemical changes in green forage stored in the

absence of air. Silage is fermented, high-moisture stored fodder which can be fed

to cattle, sheep and other such ruminants or used as a biofuel feedstock for anaerobic digesters.

It is fermented and stored in a process called ensilage, ensiling, and is usually made

from grass crops, including maize, sorghum or other cereals. There are increasing attempts to

develop a suitable ensilage process, because the feeding of well-preserved silage is expected to

improve the productivity of livestock in the tropics (Ohmomo et al. 2002).

To read more: http://www.hedp.af/blog/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Silage-article.pdf


Evaluation of milk composition for fat and bacteriological quality of raw pre-processed and pasteurized milk in Nangarhar Province

Evaluation of milk composition for fat and bacteriological quality of raw pre-processed and pasteurized milk in Nangarhar Province

Ahmad Farid Rawan

Pre-Clinic department, Veterinary Science Faculty, Nangarhar University, Afghanistan

Abstract

Milk has been part of the human diet for millennia and is valued as a natural and traditional food, consumption of raw milk is associated with many serious human diseases. To determine the bacteriological quality of raw milk, total 150 raw milk samples from three different areas (Serkhrod, Behsod and Jalalabad city) and 40 pasteurized packed milk (Tarang, Every day, Milk pack and Qudrat) were collected from local market. Experiment 1, boiling, alcohol tests and water adulteration for hygienic quality of raw milk, gerber tests for fat concentrations of raw and pasteurized milk were performed. Experiment 2, methylene blue tests were performed to determine the bacteriological quality of raw milk. Water adulteration percentage was higher 2.5% in Jalalabad city milk samples (P<0.05). Fat concentrations in raw milk were 3.8%, 3.7% 4.2% and in pasteurized milk 6%, 6.2%, 3.4% and 5.9% respectively. Milk bacteriological quality (Excellent, Good and fair) of Jalalabad city milk was 50%, 26%, 24% in Behsod region 46%, 30%, 24% and in Serkhrod region 60% (P<0.05) , 26% and 24% respectively. Overall results shows that pasteurized milk has exogenous fat substances. Serkhrod region milk has excellent bacteriological quality compare to other two districts.

Keywords: Raw milk, fat concentration, Methylene blue, pasteurized milk and bacteriological quality

Introduction

According to the FAO census of 2003 there are some 3.7 million heads of cattle, the total production of milk is not enough to meet the demands of dairy products. Milk is the lacteal secretion of the mammary glands of a mammal, obtained by the complete milking of healthy cows which contains not less than 8.25% milk solids-not-fat, and less than 3.25% milk fat. The food value of milk depends upon its milk fat and milk solids-not-fat content (Yitayal, 2003).

To read more: http://www.hedp.af/blog/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Research-Report-by-Ahmad-Farid-Rawan.pdf